An etching by William Heath depicting a woman dropping her tea-cup in horror upon discovering the monstrous contents found in a magnified drop of Thames water. In the nineteenth century, sewage and waste contaminated the River Thames in London, making it a prime source of water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
William Cowper (1666-1709). The Anatomy of Humane Bodies, 1698.
Thomas Eakins, Retrospection, (1880)
Henry Ossawa Tanner - Study for Androcles (c.1885-1886)
Between 1916 and 1927, a worldwide epidemic of encephalitis lethargica killed approximately 250,000 persons and left an additional 250,000 with chronic disability. Patients developed fever, headache, paralysis of eye muscles leading to double vision, delayed physical and mental response, and lethargy as if in a perpetual state of restless sleep. Survivors of the acute illness developed parkinsonism, usually within 10 years of the infection.
The epidemic mysteriously resolved in the late 1920s and has not recurred, although there are individual reports of similar clinical pictures occasionally. Although the etiology is presumed to be a virus, none has ever been identified.
Actual footage of woman suffering from the disease: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lNVtUlroZc
The book and later movie “Awakenings” was based on the real life events of Oliver Sacks administering L-dopa to post-encephalitic parkinsonism patients.
A) Lieutenant-General Sir William Boog Leishman (left) and Captain Charles Donovan at a microscope (right)
B) Clinical Leishmaniasis: Visceral with HSM (left), mucocutaneous (center), cutaneous (right)
Spread by sandflies in various parts of the world, including Central and South America, West Asia, and the Middle East, leishmania species are protozoal parasites that can cause cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations ranging from disfiguring to fatal. Treatment includes pentavalent antimonials sodium stibogluconate/meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin, miltefosine, fluconazole, and paromomycin.
Leishmaniasis is named after William Leishman, a Glasgwegian doctor seving with the British Army in India , developed one of the earliest stains of Leishmania in 1901. In Dum Dum, a town near Calcutta , Leishman discovered ovoid bodies in the spleen of a British soldier who was experiencing bouts of fever, anemia, muscular atrophy and swelling of the spleen. Leishman described this illness as “dum dum fever” and published his findings in 1903. Charles Donovan also recognized these symptoms in other kal-azar (Hindi/Urdi for “black fever”) patients and published his discovery a few weeks after Leishman. After examining the parasite using Leishman’s stain, these amastigotes were known as Leishman-Donovan bodies and officially, this species became known as, L. Donovani. By linking this protozoan with kal-azar, Leishman and Donovan discovered the genus, Leishmanias.
Capt. Donovan is the same individual attributed to Donovan bodies, which are found in Granuloma inguinale, which is caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.